This week, the El Paso Independent School District turns an important corner. It will swear in an entirely new, seven-member board of trustees, ready to take over from the board of managers that has run the district for the past two years.

Those managers and the superintendent they hired in August 2013 have righted the district after the worst and most far-reaching scandal in its history.

When they took over, former superintendent Lorenzo Garcia was serving a 3 1/2-year prison sentence for fraud and leading administrators and some teachers in a conspiracy to cheat on state tests.

Because the scandal ran so deep, Texas Education Commissioner Michael Williams put the district under a monitor, Judy Castleberry, in August 2012 and raised her status to conservator two months later.

Then, that December, Williams removed the elected board from power. It was a historic act – EPISD was the largest school district in Texas to have its board removed.

Williams named the five-member board of managers in the spring of 2013.

Dee Margo, businessman and former legislator, became chairman of a board comprised of Castleberry, El Paso Water Utilities former president and CEO Ed Archuleta, the city of El Paso’s CFO Carmen Arrieta-Candelaria and Head Start director Blanca Enriquez.

Williams will be back in town Monday to attend the swearing-in for the seven-member board of elected trustees.

Three of those trustees were elected May 9 – Al Velarde, Dori Fenenbock and Trent Heath. The other four have been waiting since their election two years ago to take office – Susie Byrd, Diane Dye, Bob Geske and Chuck Taylor.

Although many in El Paso think it’s time to put the district back in the hands of elected trustees, Williams may name a monitor to keep an eye on things during the board’s transition.

Margo and Williams sat down with El Paso Inc. for an extended interview last week to talk about what happened and changes that have taken place since the scandal that rocked EPISD and El Paso.

Q: It’s been two years since TEA Commissioner Michael Williams appointed the board of managers to run the district. The board hired you, Mr. Cabrera. How has the district’s administration changed since then?

Cabrera: They were appointed in December 2012. But delays kept them from being placed as managers until May of 2013. I was hired in September 2013.

We all knew it was a big job, and this was well known in education circles to be easily one of the toughest jobs in America. I think people don’t realize that this is the largest district in Texas history to have its trustees removed and have managers put in charge – and I think that the fact that we had gone through three interim superintendents and a lot of turmoil before the managers were finally placed in.

When I arrived, they had only been here 90 days. We replaced virtually half the directors and every person who reports one level or two levels from me. Sixty of our 93 principals are new and probably the same percentage of assistant principals. So, administration from the top down had been completely revamped and changed.

Q: How many of those changes had to do with the scandal?

Cabrera: Because of the way we report, because of the managers coming in, the interim superintendents and all those changes, we definitely had some increased attrition and retirements. One of the things I’m proud of now is that there are people leaving EPISD and getting jobs today.

Folks don’t realize the education community is very conservative. You couldn’t get a job coming from EPISD a couple of years ago if you were trying to get out of here. We had a bad reputation, and no one wanted to touch them. But now we’ve got people getting jobs at the big districts across the state, and that means we’re looked at in a different light.

But to answer your question, I would say that probably half of the changes were because of what happened. Probably 30 to 40 percent of our central office were either interim or filling roles – placeholders while we moving things around.

Margo: Some were formerly retirees who had been brought back by Vernon Butler.

Q: Vernon Butler had a lot of experience as a superintendent. What did he bring the district?

Cabrera: Mr. Butler did two things that I think were very smart. One, he brought in a sense of calm and stability. But, he also didn’t make a lot of changes or hires. He brought in a lot of retired or interim folks.

That left us the opportunity to fill the bigger, more important positions, but it also left quite a bit of work. I’d say we spent most of the first year focusing on hiring the right people for the right jobs. The fruits of that labor take time to show up and for the public to see the quality of the people you’re hiring.

Margo: It takes three years to change the culture of an organization. I don’t care whether you’re talking about corporate America or any other institution. Passing the budget was our first responsibility because we had a June 30 fiscal year.

Unfortunately, the budget we passed was predicated on work of the previous trustees and staff, which was incorrect. It was incorrect on the student population number, which drives our budget.

Q: How did you settle on Juan Cabrera?

Margo: The second thing we had to do was go out and hire a superintendent. We were looking for somebody with character and commitment. Juan Cabrera came out of the blue. He didn’t even apply until July of ‘13. The first 11 résumés and applicants we looked at, as I recall, we threw out. We interviewed three or four and said forget it; none of them met our standards.

Then in July, he applied. We had to change the job description to keep it open. We opened it and talked again to the firm, PROACT, which was the firm we were using at the time.

We narrowed our choice down to two candidates, Juan and another superintendent from South Texas. At the last minute when that superintendent was due to come in, he backed out. We had the interview with Juan. The fact that he had family here and the background he had was all a plus. I talked to Commissioner Williams and said we had a nontraditional superintendent.

Q: Mr. Cabrera, how did you happen to apply?

Cabrera: I don’t know if Dee knows this, but I was actually vacationing in July with my family in El Paso when the board met at the end of June and changed one line in the job description to say “no prior superintendent’s experience required.”

Being a school attorney, I kept up with all the school districts. Before that, I didn’t know any of the managers. Our law firm was growing by leaps and bounds. We were opening another office and would have three offices across the state.

My wife and I were up in Ruidoso, and I said the El Paso job sounds like a real challenge, and from what I’m hearing in the network, they’re not going to have quality candidates. And I really didn’t think a strong traditional superintendent was going to take it because it was a job to nowhere. It potentially could be a black mark on your career.

I said what they really need is somebody that’s got nothing to lose. To really do it well and swing for the fence, they needed somebody who would be bold and didn’t care if they got another superintendency job and didn’t need to get another one. We weren’t rich, but we were secure, and I knew I could always open another law firm.

I said you know what if we don’t do this now, the law firm’s going to get so big we’ll never have the chance to unwind this thing. Why don’t we just see if I would be a good fit?

I think I connected with all five of the managers on that first phone interview. Then we had a Skype interview. Then I flew in after July, and it moved pretty quick after that.

Q: You mentioned the “fruits of that labor” regarding the new people you brought in. What did you mean?

Cabrera: What really makes an organization successful is a passionate group of people who are motivated and excited about chasing a dream and a cause. That’s what I mean by the “fruits of our labor.”

We tried to find value-centered people that are passionate about kids and education. But, then they’ve got to come here, get comfortable and become part of the culture and the city and build the organization. That’s what I meant. Systematically and programmatically, I think we’ve got the right teachers in place, but the people part of it is just beginning.

I see a different district; I feel it. It’s just a sense I get as I talk to people around the district. People who’ve been here 20 years tell me it’s just a different place. That’s what I mean. We’re beginning to see this head of steam – positive attitude, positive energy. Eventually, people who aren’t positive will begin to feel uncomfortable. They’re either going to come around or find another place to work.

Margo: Let me add couple of things. When we were looking for a superintendent, I said we need character and commitment. Character was a given, especially after what we’d had before. But the commitment we were looking for was to the community, not to the job.

This is the 10th largest school district in Texas. But I find that the majority of El Pasoans don’t understand the size of the district compared with other entities in this community. The EPISD budget is larger than the city’s budget when you strip away their nongovernmental functions, like Sun Metro, bridges and garbage collection.

It is larger than UMC and twice the size of the county’s budget. It’s the second largest employer in the county after Fort Bliss. It has 9,000 employees and about 4,800 of them are teachers. People don’t realize that or that 48 percent of your property taxes are going to the El Paso school district.

Q: Mr. Margo, what has bringing in a superintendent from the business sector done for the district, and is Juan Cabrera a new model for a school superintendent today?

Margo: Juan has unique skill sets. He taught and has an education background, augmented by his law degree. He practiced as general counsel for multiple school districts in Texas. He was also the CEO of a software corporation in Europe. So, he brings the managerial perspective along with education.

The commissioner, Michael Williams, and I talked about that and he encouraged the direction we were going in.

Quite candidly, I think the direction EPISD has gone with someone with Juan’s skills and caliber is where the majority of districts ought to go. With a district of this size, he acts as a CEO and oversees other people implementing the education issues, the operational issues, facility issues. That’s what he does. He provides direction to his staff and holds them accountable.

We have a $480 million budget with $400 million plus in debt. If you aggregated it all and we were $1.1 billion, we’d be a Fortune 1,000 company. That’s what people don’t grasp.

Q: Mr. Cabrera, do you think this is a model that other districts might look to after seeing what you’ve done here without having worked your way up through the ranks of school administrators?

Cabrera: I do think this is really a time for us in Texas to take a different look at our approach. It is not just about whether a nontraditional superintendent can do this job. It’s whether the preparation for the superintendency from the education and certification side is what we want to get somebody ready to run a large school district.

It does become more like running a business, and having been a principal doesn’t really prepare you to be a superintendent.

I mentioned that 5,000 employees aren’t in the classroom. There’s a lot of other people that need to be successful to get kids on a bus at 7 in the morning, get them safely onto a clean, safe and secure campus, shuttle them between classes, go to lunch and PE. Then, at the end of the day, we get them home.

We’ve got to make sure the people in the central office support the parents and community around that school system. A lot of things have to happen.

Q: So, what do you think about today’s required qualifications for school superintendents?

Cabrera: I think we are missing a big opportunity in Texas in the way we educate superintendents. I think we should educate them more from a business mindset, in terms of some CEO training. A number of states allow a waiver into the superintendency program for retired CEOs and retired senior commanders in the military.

I’m quite surprised that Texas doesn’t have it. We have a lot of strong military personnel that might want to step in and be part of superintendent administration in their 50s when they retire. It’d be great to have a retired two- or three-star general running a school district.

Q: Texas isn’t known for its secondary education system or for being innovative. Are there any significant innovations that EPISD is working on?

Cabrera: We’re trying to do two major initiatives. One is we want to create a more active learning environment, so we’re actually wanting teachers to be more like facilitators and to help kids become more collaborative and help them be critical thinkers and problem solvers along with their classmates.

Along with that, we’re interjecting technology or devices into the mix so that they can take advantage of the millions of opportunities for open educational content. Virtually anything you want to learn about, you can learn about on the Internet.

Our juniors and freshman were born in 1999 or 2000, so with next year’s freshman’s class, they’ve not lived without a device in their hands or without technology as a part of their life. What we’re trying to do is not only use technology to engage students, but also help them be better prepared so when employers are hiring them, they're able to learn and to work with technology – not just play with technology – at a high level so they can be successful, collaborative employees.

We are making a big push, and I think we will be a state and national leader for our innovation here in El Paso.

Q: Is that something that’s coming from the state or from the district? Are these models that the state of Texas is now likely to pick up from EPISD?

Cabrera: At this point, there’s no state leadership in it. What we’re doing is just taking a number of innovative districts across the country that are looking at best practices and what’s going on. We’re looking at some of the techniques that charter schools are using in the classroom to differentiate instruction for our kids and allow them to reach their highest potential.

You’ve got a handful of districts around the country that are looking for best practices with greater technology in the classroom. We’re definitely going to be one of them.

Q: I interviewed El Paso’s charter school pioneer, Iris Burnham, a few weeks ago. Their charter schools have had some significant achievements. She said charters were intended to serve as laboratories for larger schools and districts. She said school districts in Texas, around the country and internationally are looking to her schools and have come here to see what they’re doing. But, in El Paso, she said, the Burnham charter schools have had no interaction with the school districts and no acceptance, really.

Cabrera: I don’t know who that is.

Margo: Da Vinci School.

Cabrera: I spend a lot of my free time reading trade journals, and I’m really confident that we will be able to be the lead innovator, not only here but also in the state. So I’m sorry, I haven’t visited there. I’ve visited a lot of schools, probably 20 school districts in Texas. I hadn’t read about any of their innovations here but now that you told me, I will go take a look.

Q: In general, what are your thoughts on charter schools in Texas. If nobody comes in to see what they’re doing, it’s not working.

Cabrera: People look to the charter schools to be the magic bullet. But the bottom line is great teaching and more of it. If you can capture that in your school system, no matter whether you’re public, charter or private, that’s what’s going to make kids successful.

So, the magic bullet is can you find great teachers and can you duplicate that over and over again throughout your school system. It’s obviously easier to do that with smaller school systems. So many times, charter schools will have success with a few hundred students, and you can focus all your energies on hiring seven good teachers.

Our challenge in a large public school system is to make sure we have 4,000 great teachers. That’s what we strive to do every day, and that’s the challenge of a larger school system. The way we break that down into small pieces is to hire great principals. We hope they’re the instructional leaders that help us have great teaching at every school.

Q: Is there anything you’d take from charter schools?

Cabrera: There is one area I will focus on. I’m actually going to talk to the commissioner of education about this for the 2017 legislative session. Charters have longer school days and longer school years. I want to take some of our more struggling schools and maybe ask for additional money from the state for them. I’d like to have longer school days and longer school years.

Some of our kids that are getting behind half a grade or a grade level every year should only take a month off. They should be in school to mid July or the end of July, take off a month and be back here.

There’s no reason for them to be home for 2 1/2 months. We need to stay on top of them, we need to support them. We need to give them that extra time.

Q: What else have you done?

Margo: Talk about the summer enrichment program and also Head Start and pre-K.

Cabrera: Last year, we did two initiatives with the managers. One was Head Start’s Dr. Blanca Enriquez, who got together with us and met with all of our principals at the elementary levels and coordinated full-day pre-K. Head Start can find federal dollars for a half day, and we can fund a half day.

But we had never gotten together. We couldn’t get the schedules or transportation to work. Dr. Enriquez came and I told the principals they didn’t have a choice, they had to make it work.

So they got together and one month before school started last year, we were able to add 1,000 kids to our full-day pre-K. Parents could leave them with us all day and could figure out the transportation. That was a great innovation, and it will make a difference.

Then, what we did last year, and not with money from the state, was a month-long summer enrichment program that had never been done before. We offered it to every child in the district. We had about 8,000 kids show up, and we’re hoping to double that this year. I testified before the Legislature this year that we need some dedicated funds for that.

We need some help. We’ve got the facilities. We’re managing that, but we’re paying teachers to teach those classes.

We’re doing another month this summer and we expect it to double in size.

Q: Mr. Margo, what did having an appointed board of managers do for EPISD? Can you give us a short list of the board’s accomplishments?

Margo: First of all, our view of the district was at-large. It was not single-member or parochial. We were looking at the entire district. And I think, irrespective of the fact that trustees are elected by a particular district, they need to look at the entire district. You can’t function separately.

That was one thing. The other is we had a fresh set of eyes for everything. That’s why we did a curriculum and instruction audit that had never been done before. We had policies and procedures that had never been done. We had a facilities audit done by Jacobs Engineering to study all of our structures that was not done with any idea related to consolidating schools. We didn’t know we had enrollment problems.

We contracted with them under the assumptions in the old budget, and then we found out we’re going like this (he motions downward), which is exactly what Ysleta has been going through. We did things that hadn’t been done before.

We met with the FBI. The prior trustees never met with the FBI. They had awarded Lorenzo Garcia an extension to his contract 30 days before his arrest. That’s ridiculous, unreal.

We tried to push down as many administrative decisions as we could to staff. They shouldn’t be kicked up to the board and done in closed session. The prior trustees were helping to make decisions on principal selections, yet they’re not here to be hiring any principals nor are they qualified to make those decisions.

A trustee’s job is simply policy and procedure oversight and budgetary allocation – money, taxes and structures. They didn’t even have a plan for replacing buses, which have a natural life of about 20 years. There was no cycle for replacing them.

I think one of the biggest accomplishments with Juan is we had a bunch of silos, and we’re still breaking them down. People came to work and just wanted to be left alone.

Q: We had a story recently about how as few as 700 votes are cast in school board and school bond elections because they get so little attention. Are we doing something wrong with the way we elect trustees?

Margo: The total budgets of school districts in El Paso County from local, state and federal taxpayer dollars is $1.4 billion. The outstanding bond debt is also almost $1.4 million. I think there ought to be a higher level of scrutiny.

We talk about people voting for pocketbook issues. Well, this is your biggest pocketbook issue. But there’s a disconnect, and I think it’s because you pay your property taxes with mortgage payments and people don’t think about the fact that 58 percent of their taxes are going to schools whether you’re retired or not, or have kids or don’t.

Q: Former Superintendent Garcia went to prison and a lot of people lost their jobs over what is generally referred to as the “cheating scandal.” Knowing what you know now, what was it all about? Covering up the fact that schools, teachers and students were performing poorly? Or was it all about the money?

Margo: Garcia had supreme character issues and major flaws, and he had a contract that rewarded him on test scores. I guess his last contract year, he received $54,000 in bonuses based on what I consider bogus test scores. I remember people were in fear. He told people that if you didn’t do it my way, you’re gone.

I remember a teacher calling me after we were put in as board of managers. She had recently retired and was talking about it. I said I know you all got together and had big meetings and I know you knew what was going on. Why didn’t you do anything or say anything?

She said, “I’m a single parent, and I couldn’t afford to lose my job.” It was wrong, and he created that entire culture up here with people who were in alignment with him. That’s why the FBI’s still going.

Q: You had a school board that didn’t do anything. You had administrators and teachers who knew what was going on, and no one said anything. Well, a few did. Has that changed?

Margo: One of the reasons was the school board. I believe that they were incompetent and should have been arrested for impersonating trustees. Their biggest mistake was allowing the internal auditor to report to Garcia in direct violation of any standard you would have. The internal auditor is solely the employee of the board.

He did the report on Bowie, but Garcia was able to suppress it by continuing to stamp it as a draft, and he never disclosed it.

That was just malfeasance on their part. It was the responsibility of the trustees and they allowed that person. That’s why he’s no longer here. We hired a new one and revamped the policies, procedures and forms.

Q: Did you change the policies in regard to whistleblowing in any way?

Margo: We looked at all of that, and we found that we had plenty of protections in there. We’ve revamped all of our policies and procedures, but my understanding that wasn’t an issue as far as protection was concerned. The issue was stepping forward.

Cabrera: You’ve got to have the rules to incentivize people to do the right thing. More importantly, and I know this sounds corny, but you’ve got to hire people of character who really have a passion for kids. At the core of what they’re doing, they were hired in public education to serve children, all shapes and sizes.

What they did was they manipulated children and their futures for the gain of adults. We have to get people in here who put children above themselves. This is not a job. If you just want a job, this is the wrong place to work.

Q: In terms of performance by schools, teachers and students, what has changed since 2012? And what have you changed, Mr. Cabrera?

I want our people to have an unbridled passion for working with children. It sounds very simplistic, but people got into this business in their 20s because they really wanted to make a difference. Politics, scandals make life complicated. I want them to have fun at work.

I talk to them about this all the time, and they probably look at me like I’m from Mars, but I really do want to make it that simple. I want to unleash the power of the human spirit. I want them to feel safe and secure in the workplace, so they can be the best teachers they can be.

At the end of the day, it doesn’t matter who the superintendent is or who’s in central office. When you close that door as a teacher, you’ve got to give it all you can. That’s the obligation of all of us in this business.

Q: Has what happened in EPISD been a lesson for the TEA and other school districts in Texas? Have statewide changes come out of El Paso’s cheating scandal?

Cabrera: I think the benefit is educators know they’ll go to jail if they cheat. That is going to be a benefit for all of us that have kids in the school system. You just saw what happened in Atlanta and what happened here, and we know other districts were doing it too. They just didn’t get caught.

I think that who benefitted the most are the parents and children, because educators know they’re held to a higher standard and that they can go to jail. Seven people in Atlanta will serve seven years each.

They were changing kids test scores after the fact. It was worse here because when you kick kids out of school, then you’re physically damaging them.

Q: When the three new board members who were elected recently take office, and the four who were elected in 2013 are sworn in, EPISD will have a board of brand new members. I don’t know if that’s happened before. How will they be brought up to speed in terms of understanding what their job is, since they won’t have other board members to learn from?

Cabrera: Going back about three months, I started meeting in groups of two or individually with the four elected trustees – Susie Byrd, Diane Dye, Bob Geske and Chuck Taylor – and Dee and I have met extensively over the course of three months.

We’ve had very fruitful meetings and budget meetings, meetings where department heads came and sat with them. We’ve had some general sessions where we talk about what their goals are for the district and what do they want to achieve.

I’m very comfortable that I’ve built solid relationships with them. On Sunday after the election, I reached out to the three of the elected board members. We’ve already got meetings planned to start talking individually with them about the budget to give them budget and organizational packets. I’m going to argue that even though none of them has experience, they’re going to be some of the best prepared in terms of getting to interact so much with us so early on.

As soon as they’re put into office May 18, we’ve got a number of extensive training sessions set up for them. Between May and June, we’ll probably meet five to seven times for training, anywhere from all day to a couple of hours of training. We will do an intensive amount of training in the next 20 to 90 days.

Q: Jacobs Engineering recommended that EPISD spend $850 million to close, consolidate and rebuild schools. Following their recommendations would mean holding a bond election this year for $261 million, another in 2018 for $253 million and another in 2021 for $216 million. Are you going forward with it?

Cabrera: No, we’re going forward with none of it, actually. Our goal was to spend $1 million on Jacobs and then a lot of internal staff time to put together all of the pieces of that puzzle.

A lot of it is demographics and where we see the city growing. Where neighborhoods are growing, we want to keep our schools there. Where enrollment’s declining, you have to look at alternatives.

Right now, the entire plan submitted in April is on the shelf. Nothing’s being done with it, so that we can focus on the next six weeks of passing a budget. The trustees are going to have their hands full from May 18 until June 23. That is all the time they have to pass a $480 million budget.

When the budget is passed, we’ll get the Facilities Modernization Plan off the shelf and begin to go through it in detail and have the trustees give us direction about the ideas they like, which ones they don’t like and begin to get some more community input.

As we do that, we will work on finalizing a new plan that’s blessed by the elected trustees. It will then include budget timelines on the bond elections and all that.

Q: What would you take from the voter’s rejection of Ysleta ISD’s $451 million bond issue, which was to do much of what El Paso ISD needs to do?

Cabrera: I honestly thought it was going to pass, and I was surprised. What I take from that is I think we have to be as meticulous as we can about getting the community’s input about the size and use of the bond fund money.

One of the things I’m excited about is that the seven trustees coming in have spent a lot of time with the community. I think they’re going to be a great source of information for us about when and if we go for a bond and certainly the size of it. We’re going to have to look at it really closely before we make a decision.

Q: EPISD is projected to lose 5,000 students in the next five years, but El Paso as a city is growing. What’s going on and does anyone think the trend is going to turn around given El Paso’s growth?

Cabrera: We’ve increased in population but decreased in total students across the school district. That just means we’ve got adults coming without kids, which is actually pretty positive because that means they’ll have kids eventually. But even Socorro’s growth has slowed in the last five years. They’re down to less than 5 percent growth in the last couple of years and they had been close to 10 percent for a number of years.

It is perplexing to a lot of people. How can you be growing as a county but we’re not bringing in children? Is it the types of jobs that we’re not bringing in families, or people not having children? It’s puzzling. That to me is the bigger question around who’s moving to El Paso and what’s going on.

But there’s another thing about his city, and I see this in a lot of my friends here. El Paso’s such a nice place to live, and people come here to raise families. We’re not that kind of place where people come to get away from cold weather or a place where you move out of as soon as the kids leave. People do that in Houston or Dallas. As soon as their kids are out, they want to move to Arizona.

This is my theory, but it’s not scientific at all. This is like a great retirement climate, so when your kids leave, you don’t get up and move to Phoenix. I know a lot of people in my neighborhood whose kids have been gone for five, 10, 15 years, and they are not moving. They were from the East Coast and came here 20 or 30 years ago, and they’re not moving.

Maybe we’re not the Arizona where you leave the East Coast to come here, but we have a lot of El Pasoans who left colder weather 30 or 40 years ago. Those people aren’t leaving, so you end up with empty nesters. Our population may be growing on the margins, but if those El Pasoans aren’t leaving and they’re not having more kids, then what happens?

Q: What do you think is happening in the Segundo Barrio? There are a lot of older people there living in rental housing and the number of kids is declining.

Cabrera: I don’t know percentages, but we have got a large percentage of our kids south of I-10. I don’t know what this says, but it doesn’t say many good things. A lot of the kids in our schools are living with their grandmother or grandfather or aunts or uncles, and their parents may or may not be living with them.

So, you have kids attending the schools that their parents attended who are living with their grandparents, aunts or uncles, and their parents may not be around. When those kids graduate from high school, those grandmothers are going to be dead or very old.

When that cycle ends and new families don’t move into Segundo, what happens? We’re artificially supporting schools in a lot of ways. We have a transient group of people there that comes in and moves out.

Q: Given the housing conditions, why would people move there?

Cabrera: Yeah, that’s what worries me. I sit down with some of our best and brightest at Jeff and Bowie. I ask them, “When you finish school and graduate from UTEP, will you live here?” Almost all say “no.”

We’ve got to convince real estate developers and county and city officials to help revitalize these neighborhoods. They’re only used to developing in desert areas on the fringes. They don’t realize you can take these neighborhoods and completely revitalize them from the inside out. That’s what needs to happen.


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